Standard Test Method for Static and Kinetic Coefficients of Friction of Plastic Film and Sheeting
Measuring a thin film's coefficient of friction will tell you how easily a
material moves against itself or other materials -- either from a stopped
position or while in motion.
Some applications such as the film packaging around packs of meat in grocery stores
require materials which will offer little slippage while other applications such as laminates over
driver licenses typically require a more slippery feel to them.
Possible reasons why customers request coefficient of friction testing include:
- Qualification of a Thin Film for Specific Applications
- Analysis of a Thin Film for Additives Which May Have Bloomed to the Surface
Below you will find a brief description of the ASTM Test Method related to the topics covered above:
Significance and Use
Measurements of frictional properties may be made on a film or sheeting specimen when sliding over itself or over another substance. The coefficients of friction are related to the slip properties of plastic films that are of wide interest in packaging applications. These methods yield empirical data for control purposes in film production. Correlation of test results with actual performance can usually be established.
This test method includes testing at temperatures other than 23°C by heating only the plane while the sled is at ambient temperature.
Slip properties are generated by additives in some plastic films, for example, polyethylene. These additives have varying degrees of compatibility with the film matrix. Some of them bloom, or exude to the surface, lubricating it and making it more slippery. Because this blooming action may not always be uniform on all areas of the film surface, values from these tests may be limited in reproducibility.
The frictional properties of plastic film and sheeting may be dependent on the uniformity of the rate of motion between the two surfaces. Care should be exercised to ensure that the rate of motion of the equipment is as carefully controlled as possible.
Data obtained by these procedures may be extremely sensitive to the age of the film or sheet and the condition of the surfaces. The blooming action of many slip additives is time-dependent. For this reason, it is sometimes meaningless to compare slip and friction properties of films or sheets produced at different times, unless it is desired to study this effect.
Frictional and slip properties of plastic film and sheeting are based on measurements of surface phenomena. Where products have been made by different processes, or even on different machines by the same process, their surfaces may be dependent on the equipment or its running conditions. Such factors must be weighed in evaluating data from these methods.
The measurement of the static coefficient of friction is highly dependent on the rate of loading and on the amount of blocking occurring between the loaded sled and the platform due to variation in time before motion is initiated.
Care should be exercised to make certain that the speed of response of the recorder, either electronic or mechanical, is not exceeded.
For many materials, there may be a specification that requires the use of this test method, but with some procedural modifications that take precedence when adhering to the specification. Therefore, it is advisable to refer to that material specification before using this test method. Table 1 of Classification System D 4000 lists the ASTM materials standards that currently exist.
1.1 This test method covers determination of the coefficients of starting and sliding friction of plastic film and sheeting when sliding over itself or other substances at specified test conditions. The procedure permits the use of a stationary sled with a moving plane, or a moving sled with a stationary plane. Both procedures yield the same coefficients of friction values for a given sample.
Note 1—For the frictional characteristics of plastic films partially wrapped around a cylinder, or capstan, see Test Method G 143 under the jurisdiction of ASTM Subcommittee G02.50.
1.2 Test data obtained by this test method is relevant and appropriate for use in engineering design.
1.2.1 As an option to this test, coefficient of friction may be run at temperatures other than 23°C by heating only the plane while the sled is at ambient temperature.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For a specific precautionary statement, see the end of 6.5.
Note 2—This test method is not equivalent to ISO 8295–1995, and results cannot be directly compared between the two methods.
2. Referenced Documents
- D3574 Test Methods for Flexible Cellular Materials--Slab, Bonded, and Molded Urethane Foams
- D4000 Classification System for Specifying Plastic Materials
- D618 Practice for Conditioning Plastics for Testing
- D883 Terminology Relating to Plastics
- E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
- G143 Test Method for Measurement of Web/Roller Friction Characteristics
friction; kinetic coefficient of friction; plastic film; plastic sheeting; slip; static coefficient of friction; Coefficient of friction (COF)--plastics; Kinetic friction analysis; Plastic sheet and film; Static coefficient of friction; Static tests--plastics; ICS Number Code 83.140.10 (Films and sheets)
( Download ASTM D1894 From www.ASTM.org )