Standard Test Method for Compositional Analysis by Thermogravimetry
Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) involves heating a material up to and past its thermal degradation
temperature at a controlled rate and monitoring mass loss during the heating process. Upon completion
of the heating cycle only inorganic filler material will remain.
This testing method also works well for analyzing a material's thermal stability at given temperature(s)
Possible reasons why a company might request Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) include::
- Analyzing a Material's Thermal Stability
- Quantifying Inorganic Filler Content
- Analyzing a Material for Multiple Polymers
- Determination of Degradation Temperature
Below you will find a brief description of the ASTM Test Method related to the topics covered above:
Significance and Use
This test method is intended for use in quality control, material screening, and related problem solving where a compositional analysis is desired or a comparison can be made with a known material of the same type.
The parameters described should be considered as guidelines. They may be altered to suit a particular analysis, provided the changes are noted in the report.
The proportion of the determined components in a given mixture or blend may indicate specific quality or end use performance characteristics. Particular examples include the following:
Increasing soot (carbon) content of used diesel lubricating oils indicates decreasing effectiveness.
Specific carbon-to-polymer ratio ranges are required in some elastomeric and plastic parts in order to achieve desired mechanical strength and stability.
Some filled elastomeric and plastic products require specific inert content (for example, ash, filler, reinforcing agent, etc.) to meet performance specifications.
The volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content of coal and coke are important parameters. The “ranking” of coal increases with increasing carbon content and decreasing volatile and hydrocarbon, (medium volatility) content.
1.1 This test method provides a general technique incorporating thermogravimetry to determine the amount of highly volatile matter, medium volatile matter, combustible material, and ash content of compounds. This test method will be useful in performing a compositional analysis in cases where agreed upon by interested parties.
1.2 This test method is applicable to solids and liquids.
1.3 The temperature range of test is typically room temperature to 1000 °C. Composition between 1 and 100 weight % of individual components may be determined.
1.4 This test method utilizes an inert and reactive gas environment.
1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.6 This standard is related ISO 11358 but is more detailed and specific.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents
- D3172 Practice for Proximate Analysis of Coal and Coke
- E1142 Terminology Relating to Thermophysical Properties
- E1582 Practice for Calibration of Temperature Scale for Thermogravimetry
- E2040 Test Method for Mass Scale Calibration of Thermogravimetric Analyzers
- E473 Terminology Relating to Thermal Analysis and Rheology
- E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
- 11358 Plastics-Thermogravimetry (TG) of Polymers -- General Principles
ash; combustible material; composition; compositional analysis; highly volatile matter; medium volatile matter; thermogravimetry; Handling material; Heating tests--chemicals/materials; Mass; Plastic materials; Problem solving; Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); Volatile matter content; Ash; Carbon content; Combustible material; Composition analysis--plastics; Elastomeric materials/applications; Geometric analysis; ICS Number Code 71.040.40 (Chemical analysis)
( Download ASTM E1131 From www.ASTM.org )